Soybean Pest Control Technology

First, the trace elements required for soybean growth and application

Soybeans require some trace elements for normal fertility, of which the most important are molybdenum, boron, zinc, and manganese. Molybdenum is a component of soybean nodule nitrogenase and is an indispensable component of normal life activities of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Boron is also very important in the life activities of soybeans. The development of soybean roots in the lack of pods is not good, and root nodules are not well developed and lose their ability to fix nitrogen. Therefore, attention must be paid to trace elements.

Can the required trace elements of soybeans be satisfied from the soil? It is determined by the abundance and environmental conditions of trace elements in the soil. For example, in low-lying or poorly-drained soils, manganese is most likely to be depleted, and iron is easily depleted in calcareous soils. Acidic soils having a pH of less than 6 tend to lack molybdenum.

In the application of micro-fertilizer, it is better to apply the seed coating agent at the time of sowing, which is more economical.

If trace elements are found at the seedling stage, foliar spraying (also called extra-root fertilizer) should be used. Spraying with 0.1% molybdic acid solution before flowering of soybeans, spraying 40-50 kg of liquid per 667 square meters.

Second, the prevention and treatment of soybean downy mildew

Soybean downy mildew seedlings, leaves and seeds. When the first true leaf is unfolded, chlorotic plaques appear along both sides of the veins. The surface of adult plants has a round or irregular shape, with unclear yellow-green star spots on the edges, and then turns brown, with a gray-white mold layer on the leaves. The surface of diseased grains adhere to the grayish white mycelium layer and contain a large amount of pathogenic oospore. The pathogenic bacteria used oospores to overwinter in the seeds and diseased leaves and became the source of infections in the beginning of the year. The onset of disease begins in the middle to late June, and the onset of disease occurs from July to August. Severe onset occurs frequently in rainy years.

Control methods:

(1) Agricultural control. Select disease-resistant varieties, select seeds, eliminate diseased grains, and implement 2-3 year rotation.

(2) Chemical control. Use 40% ethoxyphos aluminum WP, or 25% metalaxyl WP, for seed dressing at 0.5% of seed weight. The onset of the field can be sprayed with 300 mg of alfaphospho-aluminum solution or 800-fold solution of metalaxyl, about 40 kg of liquid used per 667 square meters.

Third, the application of herbicides before soybean emergence

For herbicides applied prior to the emergence of soybeans, the most commonly used are Pu Shite, Guang Xiao Ling, both of which can control grass weeds and some broad-leaved weeds. In addition, acetochlor and dole are mainly used to control grass weeds, but also must be mixed with the broad-leaved weed resistant to sophosulfuron or fuco.

The dosage of 5% Puschite was 1.5-2 liters per hectare, and 48% of Guangsiling was used at 2-2.5 liters per hectare. In order to reduce the cost and increase the efficacy of the drug Guangling, often mixed with acetochlor and Fu Ke. Its amount is 48% of hectare per hectare, and 0.75-1 litres of clomazone EC, plus 1 to 2.5 litres of 50% acetochlor EC, or a mixture of 7 to 10% fooster wettable powder, 0.3 to 0.5 kg.

Acetochlor and Dole are generally not used alone. The amount of 50% acetochlor EC is 1.5-3 liters per hectare, plus 20% sodasulfuron wettable powder 50-70 g, or 70% fucoid wettable powder 0.3-0.6 kg. Soybean seedlings are sprayed beforehand and the amount of spray is as large as possible. Manual knapsack sprayers should not be less than 300 liters per hectare and tractor sprayers should not be less than 200 liters. The artificial spraying should select fan-shaped nozzles, spray along the ridges, and spray 1 ridge at a time to keep the walking speed consistent. Do not sway, do not flicker or fall, and ensure uniformity.

The use of Puscht should take care to prevent residues of crop residues. The second year can only be planted leguminous crops. In the third year, beets and melons cannot be grown.

Fourth, scientific control of soybean aphids

Soybean worms are commonly known as worms and honey worms. More concentrated in the growing point of soybean, parietal lobe, young leaves on the back, sucking juice damage. Causes leaf curling, dwarfing plants, reduced yields, and transmission of viral diseases, resulting in reduced yields and decreased quality. This worm began to appear in the soybean field in mid-late June. It is a serious hazard when exposed to high temperatures and droughts.

Soybean aphids have a great ability to reproduce. A female can reproduce 50-60 eggs. Under appropriate conditions, small roundworms can produce litter for about 4-5 days, and can reproduce 15 times a year on soybeans.

Soybean aphids spread throughout the year with four peaks; the first was in the soybean seedling stage, the second was in early June, the third appeared in mid-July, and the fourth was in early September. It is generally best to conduct prevention and control in early July.

Control methods: mainly chemical control, using 40% dimethoate EC 800 times, or 40% omethoate EC 1000 times. 10% Bromofluthrin EC 15-20 ml per 667 square meters, 50% anti-inferiority WP 10 grams per 667 square meters, watered 40-50 kg spray.

Fifth, prevention and treatment of soybean borer

Soybean borers are small red insects that bite beans. The larvae drill into the pods and bite the tender beans in the quail to eat half the beans and reduce the soybean yield and quality. This worm occurs one generation in a year and the old larvae cover the winter in beans. At the end of July of the second year, it becomes a moth and a moth, and it flies to the pods to lay eggs. The rainfall in July and August and the humidity in the soil are favorable for occurrence.

Control methods:

(1) Agricultural control. The use of insect-resistant varieties, crop rotation, timely harvest, and timely return to the yard.

(2) Chemical control. Use 5% phorate granules 750-1000g mixed soil 10kg, before and after August 10, sprinkle in the field, spread 1 ridge every 4 ridges, or use 80% dichlorvos EC, use 100ml every 667 square meters, dip蘸 厘米 厘米 20 cm long high beam stalks or 50 corn stalks, every 5 ridges and 1 ridge, each step 7-8 steps to insert a root.

6. Prevention and cure of soybean root pods

Soybean root pods are also called soybean rootminers. Only harms soybeans and wild soybeans. The larvae bite on the roots of soybean seedlings to form a fistula and excrete fecal matter, causing root rot, bean plant dwarf, and seriously damaged soybean seedlings to die. This worm only occurs once a year. The wintering of soybean root bark tumors or earth seams with earthworms was observed. In the middle and late May of the following year, the adults were eclosioned, spawned at the soybean roots, hatched larvae, and damaged the roots of the bean sprouts.

Control methods: seed dressing to prevent larvae, 40% dimethoate emulsified according to 0.7% of the seed amount, spray on the water, while spraying mixing. Such as mixing 100 kg of soybean seeds, with 0.7 kg of medicine, 4 kg of water, spray with a sprayer, mixing while spraying, spread open and open.

80% of dichlorvos emulsifiable concentrate can be used as an adult during the prosperous period to spray and control. 40 kg of spray liquid per 667 square meters.

Seven, black cashmere beetle identification and prevention

Black velvet gold common name hits a child, big velvet horse lick. Adults (gold electrons) are mainly used to harm soybean seedlings, bite growth spots or bite off young stems, and when they occur seriously, they can eat up seedlings and cause seedlings to break, or even destroy land. This worm occurs one generation in a year. It occurs when adults spend their winters in soil and pods occur. From the end of April to the first half of May, we feed on the weeds. After the emergence of soybeans, the soybeans are eaten. This worm is lurking in the soil at night and harms it during the day. The most abundant food was taken at 3-5 p.m., and the highest amount of insects was found in warm weather.

Control methods: Can be sprayed with 2.5% trichlorphon powder, 2 kg per 667 square meters. Or use 2.5% enemy kill, 5% rifazone, 2.5% kung fu and other agents, 15-20 ml per 667 square meters, watered about 40 kg, spray.

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