Current Diseases and Control Techniques of North Pleurotus ostreatus

1 Soft rot
1.1 Disease symptoms Culture material surface or mushroom body is covered with a layer of white cotton-like fungus lines, soft and soft but growing fast, gradually infected mushroom body from the base of the bacteria began to spread light brown disease state, mushroom body gradually soft rot; In about one week after infection, the mushroom body is automatically laid down, or gently touched, as if the cabbage had a soft rot, but the soft rot mushroom body has no odor; the mushroom body that has not been soft rot has a very slow growth rate, and the cap is gradually presented. Soil yellow, no vitality, not obvious, and the difference between the normal mushroom body; the diseased material is no longer out of the mushroom even if the barely bud emerges quickly and soft rot, no commodity value.
1.2 Causes of Pathogens Soft rot pathogens generally live in the surface cultivating layer (20cm), especially in areas with high organic matter content, fertile soil, and a high number of pathogenic bacteria, such as vegetable garden soil, nursery soil, and about 100m of land around the village. Wait. The most commonly used production land for Pleurotus ostreatus is at the end of the village head lane, behind the house, and the cultivated soil is also locally sourced, so it is easy to contaminate the cultivation material with germs. When the temperature in the cultivation shed is 15 to 30°C, the relative air temperature is 90%. At the right and left, the spores of germs rapidly germinated, and the mycelium first invaded the medium material. Thereafter, as the quantity increased, the degree of harm gradually deepened, or the culture material was no longer mushroomed, or the mushroom body that had occurred was gradually soft-rotated.
1.3 Preventive Measures 1 Cultivation of greenhouses to be constructed away from the diseased area is a fundamental prevention measure. 2 When continuing to produce in the outbreak area, deal with the cultivation greenhouses as follows: a. Incineration: remove all the upper poles and coverings from the original greenhouse, scrape the wall 1~3cm, and loosen the floor about 10cm, then put them in the shed. Spread about 20cm of waste crop straw or firewood, and try to stack more at the roots of the surrounding walls to burn and burn. The incinerated ashes were poured into the soil and the ground was leveled, re-laminated and sealed as close as possible. After about 10 days, they were activated. b. Drug Sterilization: After scraping 1 cm from the wall of the greenhouse and loosening 5 cm from the floor, a 6% aqueous solution of formaldehyde is prepared, and the amount of use is controlled at 200 to 600 g/m2 depending on the degree of disease. Carry out blanket sterilization. Note points: First, spray evenly, without leaving any dead angle, no drug area; Second, to spray fast, it is best to use high pressure sprayer 2 to 3 people to operate; Third, immediately after the spray sealed greenhouse entrance and vents, a week later Can be enabled. Can also be based on the degree of disease, with carbendazim 0.3 ~ 0.6kg, 0.2 ~ 0.4kg of formaldehyde were dissolved in 100kg of water, according to the above method to deal with greenhouses and even spraying, also has a good effect. (3) Add 0.3% of carbendazim or dry fermented material (65-70°C) to the culture materials. 4Cultivation soil treatment: away from the cultivation area is the old cultivation area, the original bacteria area to take the soil, sieving the soil particle diameter below 3mm, the fine soil after the screening exposure, it is best to make it fully dry, per ton of soil With 50% carbendazim 250g, 36% formaldehyde 400g mixed with 500kg spray while mixing, spray two times and spray the liquid, and then cover the plastic film, after about a week can be used with access. 5 bacteria bags into the shed for a period of time, especially after the mushroom, if the surface of the culture material appears white wool (villus) like hyphae, should immediately use knife and shovel tools to scrape off the disease area about 2cm base material, and in the The area is smeared with a 400-fold carbendazim solution. The scrapings are removed and incinerated. Do not use the method of soil burial, and do not throw it away. 6 In the event of infestation of mushrooms, ventilation should be strengthened immediately and water spray should be stopped to minimize the humidity in the shed, and the mushrooms should be removed immediately. Refer to the above measures to clear the ward and treat mushrooms, and use the tool at 400 times. Bacteria solution soaking sterilization. After 1 to 2 weeks of observation, if no mold mycelium grows, normal management can be resumed. In the early stage of disease or when there is no mushroom growth between the tides, the surface of the culture material can be completely scraped off again in the same manner as above. 8 If the disease is heavy or found late, it is not necessary to carry out the above treatment for the cultivated greenhouse that has been seriously damaged. Only the base material is removed, and the greenhouse is re-sterilized before the cultivation.
2 Rot disease
2.1 In the early stage of disease symptoms, yellowish water spots and patches appeared on the cap, and then the mushroom body became pale yellow or yellowish water stains quickly. The rotten odor ran out and emitted a odor. The mushroom shed with severe disease was as unpleasant as a chicken coop. The infected mushroom body rotted like cooked and lost its food value.
2.2 The cause of the disease The individual bacteria are extremely small. They are widely found in culture materials, water and soil. Airborne infections and human involvement and pests are important causes of disease. Especially when the culture material is not completely or unevenly fermented, bacterial diseases are easily caused when the bacteria or the mushrooming sites are not clean. Because bacteria in the conditions suitable for 10 ~ 30 °C, the relative humidity of 90% when the spread quickly, so great harm. When the temperature is too high or too low and the humidity is too low, bacteria can form dormant spores. This spore can exist for a long time under adverse environmental conditions and germinate and continue to form hazards when the conditions are suitable. In addition, under high temperature environment, especially in the winter and spring seasons, the insulation condition of the mushroom shed is generally accompanied by poor ventilation, which is also an important reason for bacterial diseases to be able to form regional hazards.
2.3 Control measures 1 Base material should be fully and evenly fermented, and 0.2% formaldehyde should be added before sowing, fully mix and then bagging. 2 Cultivation and mushroom sheds and other places should be sprayed with carbendazim formaldehyde solution before use. 3 Spray 600 times DDV insecticide around the mushroom shed to prevent insects from entering. 4 When the mushroom body has spots of water stains, that is to quickly check the incidence in the shed. If more than 20% of the mushrooms are infested, the mushrooms should be completely removed, and the surface of the affected area should be scraped 1 to 2 cm thick to clean out the shed and burn. Hot treatment can also be sprayed with 5% formaldehyde after deep-buried. 5 The mushroom shed with severe disease was immediately ventilated and water spray was stopped. The mushrooms and robust mushrooms were removed to form a mushroom-free period. They were sprayed once with 6% formaldehyde solution and 200 units with streptomycin or 1% bleach.
3 Tuberculosis
3.1 Disease Symptoms The hyphae is similar to the mycelia of Pleurotus ostreatus, which is indistinguishable by the naked eye. It can penetrate into the interior of the base material and compete with the mushroom mycelium for nutrients, water, and living space to inhibit the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus and make it lose its mushrooming ability. After the physiological maturity of the mycelium, the mushroom material in the culture material forms a capsule fruit, especially when it is planted, a large area occurs in the contact area with the soil around the mushroom column; the appearance of the group fruit or cluster of the sub-capsules is a brain-like wrinkle block. The walnuts that seem to remove the astringent skin are unpleasantly wrinkled; most of the peasants mistakenly believe that they are buds. The result is still no differentiation after a few days. It is only the milky white of the fruit of the ascomygo that turns to light milky yellow. And then gradually light brown to brownish red, and its volume is constantly expanding, at this time hurried to take various measures to prevent and control, it is too late. When the disease occurs seriously, the whole batch of cultivated material can not grow. The smell of high-concentration bleach in the shed is one of the important signs of truffles.
3.2 Causes of Disease The disease of the genus Diteriformis is the malignant bacteria in the cultivation and cultivation of edible fungi. Spores are found in large amounts in the soil or in the base material and have a very strong vitality. When exposed to temperatures of 16 to 35°C and a temperature of 70% or more, the spores germinate quickly and form a hazard. The disease is particularly harmful to the cultivated oyster mushroom.
3.3 Control measures 1 The culture materials must be fully and evenly treated with leaven fermentation, and the water content should not exceed 63%. 2 The treatment of soil for cultivation refers to the foregoing. Before the bacteria bags enter the shed, except for the treatment of the greenhouses according to the above requirements, the bleaching powder solution with a concentration of 1.2% or more is sprayed for 1 to 2 times at intervals of 5 days. In areas where the records are recorded, carbendazim and formaldehyde solution should be sprayed again. 4 Once truffles are found, the ventilation in the greenhouse should be immediately strengthened to reduce the temperature and humidity, and 3cm (depending on the onset time and degree of depth) of the diseased area and its outer edge should be excavated, and the treated material should be backfilled. Soil, and the whole shed carpet spray 1 times 1% bleach solution, the site of excavation smear 400 times carbendazim solution.
4 Downy mildew
4.1 Disease Symptoms In the early stage of disease development, white, cotton-like hyphae are formed on the surface of the culture material, and the coverage is gradually expanded. The hyphae do not come out with mushrooms, and then invade the normal mushroom buds, the base of the mushroom body, and the mushroom body becomes Light-yellowish to yellow-brown, soft and rot, slightly odor in the late rot of the mushroom, but much less odor than rotten mushrooms infected by the bacterial disease. Diseased mushroom areas and mold mycelial areas are no longer mushroom.
4.2 Causes of the disease The mold can occur and harm within the temperature range in which the mushroom grows. It occurs mostly in the late autumn and early spring cultivation season, that is, there is a trend of low temperature incidence. In particular, this season is also a golden time for large batch production, so the severity of the disease is increasingly felt. The mold spores are heavily parasitized in the soil, base materials, and water. They can also be transmitted through the air, human bodies, and insects. Spores that are ejected by infected mushroom bodies are one of the most important ways to aggravate the damage.
4.3 Prevention and control measures 1 Cultivation sheds, soil treatment for cultivation, refer to "Prevention of soft rot." 2 After the mushroom was found, the mushroom shed was increased to ventilate. The water spray was stopped to dry the surface of the base material, and the mushroom was removed and burned in a timely manner. A new source of pollution should not be abandoned. 3 Use 5% formaldehyde or 80 times bleaching powder on used tools and mushrooms. 4 The mushroom shed with more severe disease, after dealing with all the light, processed the surface layer of the base material, scraped the surface layer, then re-injected carbendazim and formaldehyde solution and sealed it for 48 hours. Afterwards, the ventilation was enhanced, no water spray was applied, and the mushrooming management was repeated after about 10 days. . 5 Once the disease-producing villages (districts) of professional edible fungi production are found, they should not be allowed to hang on each other and visit each other to avoid cross-contamination.
5 Mushroom disease
5.1 Disease symptoms Mushrooms were infected before the differentiation and died when they were small. The diameter of the cap was about 1cm. The whole mushroom body (mushroom plexus) was dry, white, and ossified. It was not soft, rot, stinky, and some bacteria covered. The skin is tight and shiny, and some of the mushroom caps seem to have a layer of powder. The cultivation material did not show any change, but it will not grow fruit afterwards.
5.2 Causes of the disease The mold is heavily parasitized in the gaps and raw materials in the soil mushroom shed. Air, human body and insects are also important transmission routes.
5.3 Prevention and control measures There are no specific prevention and control medicines. The emphasis is on "prevention". The temperature within the shed should be appropriately reduced to increase ventilation, and the medicine should be referenced to "soft rot."

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